Cheah W.L., “Culture and understanding in the Singapore war crimes trials (1946-1948): interpreting arguments of the defence“, published in International Journal of Law in Context (Cambridge University Press).
After the Second World War, the British military organised 131 war crimes trials in Singapore, which served as the base for British war crimes investigations in Asia. These trials brought together diverse participants-judges and counsel from the UK, India, and other Allied countries; accused persons from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan; defence counsel from Japan; and witnesses from all over Asia. The majority of defendants in these trials did not deny their involvement in the war crimes concerned; instead, these defendants argued that their conduct was consistent with Japanese norms, beliefs and practices. This article explores trial participants’ varied and contested interpretations of the culturally influenced arguments put forward by the defence.
Cheah W.L., “Dealing with Desertion and Gaps in International Humanitarian Law: Changes of Allegiance in the Singapore War Crimes Trials“, published in Asian Journal of International Law (Cambridge University Press).
By studying British Indian Army [BIA] desertions during World War II, and British postwar trial responses, this paper explores the complicated dimensions of desertion and draws attention to the need for a more explicit and comprehensive approach to desertion in international humanitarian law. The paper focuses on less known British trials dealing with desertion, namely, war crimes trials conducted by the British in Singapore. It examines how these trials dealt with contested interpretations of desertion. Drawing on lessons from these trials, the paper then highlights gaps in today’s international humanitarian law framework, specifically, the need to take into account the realities of desertion, its different permutations, and the difficulties of differentiating between prisoners of war [POWs] and deserters.
Cheah W.L., “Walking the Long Road in Solidarity and Hope: A Case Study of the ‘Comfort Women’ Movement’s Deployment of Human Rights Discourse“, published in Harvard Human Rights Journal.
The article discusses the global human rights movement of comfort women, who suffered serious abuses by the Japan during WWII. The movement demands that Japan publically apologize and provide reparation for the acts committed. The article discusses the human rights strategy used by the movement to advance its claims and focuses on how this strategy can serve as a lesson to other similarly situated groups. The author compares the people-centric paradigm of post-conflict justice put forth by the movement with the state-centric paradigm employed by Japan. The first part of the article focuses on the early strategies of the movement, and analyzes the Hwang v. Japan decisions to dissect the litigation efforts put forth and the challenges faced. The second part discusses the impacts of the more recent human rights strategies employed which go beyond litigation, including the 2000 Womens Tribunal mock trial. Finally, the paper examines the transnational legislative campaigns brought forward by the movement in 2007 and 2008, and conducts a case study of the U.S. House Resolution 121. The author also discusses the impact of pursuing routes that go beyond litigation and how they further the movement.
Cheah W.L., “Policing Interpol: The Commission for the Control of Interpol’s Files and The Right to a Remedy“, published in International Organizations Law Review (BRILL).
The impact of Interpol’s work on the lives of private individuals has come under increased human rights criticism and scrutiny of late. In response, Interpol has strengthened the position of the Commission for the Control of Interpol’s Files as an independent, remedial body. The Commission has been charged with the task of ensuring that Interpol meets its human rights obligations, particularly the right to an adequate and effective remedy. This article charts the Commission’s historical evolution and critically situates it within Interpol’s institutional landscape, with a view to assessing the scope and limits of the Commission’s powers. While its status as an independent, remedial body has indeed been strengthened, a holistic appraisal of the Commission’s powers against rapidly crystallizing standards of IO accountability highlights a number of shortcomings and the need for further steps to be taken.
Cheah W.L., “Mapping Interpol’s Evolution: Functional Expansion and the Move to Legalization“, published in Policing: Journal of Police and Policing (Oxford University Press).
This article examines the historical origins and continuing evolution of Interpol by focusing on two developmental trends, namely, its functional expansion and move toward legalization as a form of governance. It situates these developmental trends against wider political, cultural and social changes of the time and explains how these changes influenced Interpol’s evolution from an informal and administrative body to an increasingly legalized body charged with a variety of policing functions. In doing so, particular focus is given to the impact of these trends on Interpol’s data processing regime.
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